Retaining Wall Invesigations
The objective of retaiing wall investigations is to provide designers of earth-retaining structures with design criteria and guidance for use in design applications. The extent and complexity of the site investigation is related to the size, complexity and form of the structure to be designed.
The design of earth-retaining structures requires adequate information on the physical conditions in the vicinity of the structure including the topography, site layout, nature of soil (including soil parameters such as cohesion and friction angle), foundation bearing capacity and the ground water conditions.
The characteristic values of c (cohesion) and φ (friction angle) can be determined by a combination of laboratory testing, field testing, experience and the likely soil behaviour determined through engineering judgement.
Monitoring or Inspection of Earth Retaining Structures
For large scale projects or retaining walls suffering from defects consideration may be given to monitoing or inspection. Basic indicators of the performance of earth structures include lateral deformation, settlement, excessive movement, cracks or ruptures, lack of drainage capacity, physical changes and changes in the environmental conditions. The purpose of inspection and monitoring may be used to ensure the safety of the structure and/or check assumptions and predictions of the design.